Definitely! Your bladder is in front of your vagina but the two aren’t connected and having a tampon in doesn’t prevent your bladder from filling or make it difficult or painful to pee (it goes in a completely different hole). Good news!
Great question, I wondered this too the first time I put the tampon in. Since my main concern was just getting the tampon inserted, I forgot to ask my mom about the peeing part. Once I had to pee, my mom was not around and I seriously thought well, I guess this is where my tampon falls out and plunks in the toilet. Lo and behold, it did not and here is the reason why. There are two holes in your vagina, one is called the urethral opening and one is the vaginal opening. Pee comes out of the first and the second spot is where your tampon goes when you are having your period.
It would be a disaster if we couldn't pee with tampons in. I think we'd all end up having either long-term bladder problems or real issues with insecurity around constantly having wet pants. Thinking that I couldn't pee with a tampon in is part of the reason why I didn't start using tampons until a long time after I started my period. Here comes a big sigh of relief for a lot of people out there; you can pee with a tampon in. Peeing with a tampon in won't harm you or do anything to disrupt your period, all it'll do is make the string of your tampon wet – and you can just move the string to the side before you pee.